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The bore of a shotgun measured in gauge is an interesting measurement.
The “gauge” is the number of lead balls in the diameter of said bore to equal 1 pound.
So a 12 gauge takes 12 lead balls with a diameter of that bore (0.725”) to equal 1 pound. So that’s why the lower the gauge, the bigger the bore because it takes less lead balls of larger diameter to equal 1 pound.
The only exception is the .410, which is the actual diameter of the bore in inches. This equals 67 1/2 gauge.
Sorry for getting off topic, but I’ve found this is a little known fact and wanted to share.
 
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